The dismantled equipment was transformed from the form of a reel. With the development of society and peopleâ€™s increasing demand for reading books, many of the disadvantages of scrolling books have gradually emerged. They can no longer adapt to new demands. If you read the middle and back parts of scroll books, you must open them all over again. It is very troublesome to roll up again. The appearance of dismounting greatly facilitates reading and is easy to pick and place. The specific approach is: a long scroll along the middle of the space between the text layout, folded one by one to form a rectangular stack, paste cardboard or wood on the first and last page. Its framed form and scrolling package have been very different, the shape is very similar to today's books. In paintings, rubbings and other aspects of decoration has been used today. Sometimes it will be seen occasionally in the old market.
(c) Cyclone equipment
Cyclones are also modified on the basis of disassembly. Although the appearance of disassembly has improved the unfavorable factors of roll loading, it will be difficult to store and use the book for a long time due to the fact that long-term reading will break the fold. So people came up with paper sheets that were written in the wrong order and pasted on the whole sheet of paper in reverse order, similar to the tiles on the roof. It is very convenient to read every page. However, its external form is not much different from that of a reel. It still needs to be rolled up and stored.
(d) Butterfly loading
During the Tang and Five Dynasties, engraving and printing has become increasingly popular, and the amount of printing has become quite large. The past book formats have been difficult to adapt to the rapid development of the printing industry. After repeated studies, people invented the butterfly form. The butterfly device is to fold the printed paper face inwards, and then use the middle seam to align all the page numbers, paste it on another bag back paper, and then cut it into a book. The butterfly-loaded books look like wings of a butterfly, so they are called "butterfly costumes." The butterfly device is paste only with paste. It does not use thread, but it is firm. It can be seen that the ancients were good at learning about the materials and methods of binding books, learning from previous experiences, actively exploring improvements, and accumulating rich experience. Today, we should think more about the development of book binding in the future, learn from previous experience, and improve and create modern forms.
(five) back pack
The society is developed, the things are progressive, and the book binding is bound to follow the pace of social development to continuously reform and innovate. Although butterflies have many conveniences, they are also incomplete. Because the text is facing inward, two pages of blank pages must be flipped each time two pages are read. Zhang Yufu said in the book Flow of Chinese Books: â€œButterfly styles are beautiful, and pages are emblazoned. If you flip too much, you will eventually fall off. Therefore, in the Yuan Dynasty, the back pack replaced the butterfly. The main difference between the back pack and the butterfly pack is that the text on the folds faces outward and faces away from each other. The two-page version of the heart's fold is at the mouth of the book. All folded pages are stacked and stamped with discounts. Use a paper-backed book that is slightly larger than the pages of the book, from the front cover to the spine and back cover, and then trim the edges so that the book is bound. The back-loaded books are similar to today's books except that the text pages are printed on one side, and every two pages of the book mouth are connected. Design Online. China
(Six) line equipment
Line decoration is the last form of ancient book binding. Compared with the package backloading, the binding method of the inside pages of the books is the same. The difference lies in the protection seals. Two pieces of paper are respectively attached to the front cover and the back cover, and the spine and the lock line are exposed. The sewing line is divided into four, six and eight stitches. Some of the rare books need special protection. They are wrapped in two corners of the book's spine, called "wrap angles." Line decoration is the basic form of Chinese printed books, and it is also the most representative phase of ancient book binding technology development. Line-bound books originated in the late Tang and early Song dynasties and prevailed in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.
Litewear, also known as "plainwear," is a form of binding commonly used by modern and contemporary books after type printing. The inside pages of the paperback book are printed on both sides of the paper. After the paper is folded, each press sheet is stamped at the spine of the book. After the horse locks the thread and puts on the seal, the three sides can be booked except the book. This method is called "lock stitches." Because locks are cumbersome and costly, they are strong and suitable for thicker or key books such as dictionaries. Now most of them use the method of trimming the book spine and then gluing it, not to lock the line. This method is called "wireless nail". It is economical but not very solid, suitable for thin or ordinary books. From the 1920s to the 1950s and 1960s, many books were in the form of wire nails. In addition, some of the thinner books, the inner pages and the cover folded together and worn directly on the spine fold, are called "riding orders." However, iron wire is prone to rust, so it should not be stored for a long time.
Hardcover books have emerged in the Qing Dynasty and are a Western method. Later, many books in the West, such as the Bible and the Code, were hardcovered. The "New Testament" published by the Meihua Publishing House during the 20 years of Guangxu's Qing Dynasty was a hardcover book. Cover with gold lettering, very gorgeous. The biggest advantage of the hardcover book is that the seal is strong and protects the inner pages, making the book durable. The inside pages of hardback books are the same as paperbacks. Most of them are threadlocks, and a strip of cloth is attached to the spine for more secure connection and protection. The material for the seal is thick and hard. The front and back covers are glued to the front and back pages of the book. The spine of the cover and the spine of the book are not sticky to each other, so that the pages are not always touched when they are read. It is more flexible. The spine is divided into flat ridges and rounded ridges. The flat ridges are mostly made of hard paper plates to make a protective lining. The ridge is made of kraft paper, leather and other tough materials to make the lining of the spine so that it can start arcing. Between the cover and the spine, the grooves and ridges are pressed to open the cover. Hardcover books are beautifully printed, difficult to break, and easy to use and save for a long time. The special design requirements and the selection of materials and process technology are also more complicated, so there are many places worthy of study.
There are also popular clips in the period of the Tang and the Five Dynasties (the imitation of the Indian Bayesian Scriptures, still used today in the Tibetan scriptures) and the Maoâ€™s clothing after the Song and Ming dynasties (grassy, â€‹â€‹rough, and casually bound) because they are not The unique form of binding, it is no longer elaborate.
The origin and evolution of Chinese bookbinding has been more than 2,000 years old. In the long-term evolution process, a simple, simple, elegant and practical Oriental unique form has gradually formed, which occupies an important position in the history of world book binding design. Only a few thousand words are difficult to describe the whole picture, and the careful study is very interesting and interesting. In today's era of modernization, every publisher and book designing designer is faced with the problem of fusion and conflict between modern and traditional. It is never desirable to be self-styled, but it is also not desirable to discard the 5,000-year-old Chinese civilization. Therefore, it is time to study the evolution of book binding design history, sum up the experience of previous generations, and take a modern breath on this basis.
Author: Li Qingwei
Source: China Design Online